The Greek manager: Personal values and behavior
Nomikos, George E
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The purpose of this study is to assess the personal value systems of Greek managers, and to compare them primarily with those of American managers, and secondarily with those of Australian, Indian, Japanese, and Korean managers. In all these countries the personal value systems of national samples of managers have been assessed using the same theoretical and measurement approach developed by G. W. England (1967). It is also the intention of this study to empirically test the hypothesis that values are significantly related to self-reported behavior (i.e., values influence problem-solving and decision-making behavior). In addition, the relationship between the personal values of managers and their managerial success is investigated (England and Lee, 1974). Related to organizational design considerations are possible differences anumg the values of managers of large, medium, and small organizations (Indik, 1963), and resulting differences in decision making processes and corporate strategy (e.g., attitudes toward such concepts as Industry Leadership, Organizational Stability, Organizational Growth, Labor Unions, Aggressiveness, Competition, and Risk) (Learned, Dooley and Katz, 1959; Guth and Tagiuri, 1965; England and Keaveny, 1969; England and Lee, 1971). Many theorists have attempted to integrate the man and the organization, suggesting that ". . . organizational theory needs an explicit model of man . . . and without such a model major difficulties arise in predicting important organizational events and processes" (Argyris, 1973, p. 141). The present study also addresses areas relevant to personality and organization theory: the existence of values that are induced in individuals by the organizational culture (i.e., adopted values), and the existence of values that are inhibited by the organizational culture (i.e., intended values) would indicate a potential mismatch between the individual and the organization. "To the extent that there is an incongruency between the needs of individuals and the requirements of a formal organization, the individuals will tend to experience (1) frustration, (2) psychological failure, (3) short time perspective, and (4) conflict" (Argyris, 1973, p.144). The existence of such a condition should necessitate adaptive activities by both the individual and the organization (e.g., greater and wider participation of individuals in the goal setting process, and restructuring of the organization).