Flexible Magnetic Field Nanosensors for Wearable Electronics: A Review
Flexible magnetic field nanosensors hold immense potential for wearable electronics, offering a range of advantages such as comfort, real-time health monitoring, motion sensing, durability, and seamless integration with other sensors. They are expected to revolutionize wearable technologies and drive innovation in various domains, enhancing the overall user experience. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in flexible magnetic field nanosensors, including flexible Hall sensors, flexible magnetoresistive (MR) sensors such as giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) sensors, flexible fluxgate sensors, and flexible giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensors. We discuss different fabrication methods and real-life applications for each type of sensor as well as the technical challenges faced by these sensors. The use of these flexible nanosensors opens more possibilities for human–computer interaction and presents exciting opportunities for wearable technology in diverse fields. The robustness of these sensors along with the trend to reduce energy consumption will continue to be important research areas. Future trends in flexible magnetic field nanosensors include energy harvesting from the body, miniaturization and lower power consumption, improved durability and reliability, and reduced cost. These advancements have the potential to drive the widespread adoption of flexible magnetic field nanosensors in wearable devices, enabling innovative applications and enhancing the overall user experience.