Analysis of Grid-Forming Inverter Controls for Grid-Connected and Islanded Microgrid Integration


Autonomous grid-forming (GFM) inverter testbeds with scalable platforms have attracted interest recently. In this study, a self-synchronized universal droop controller (SUDC) was adopted, tested, and scaled in a small network and a test feeder using a real-time simulation tool to operate microgrids without synchronous generators. We presented a novel GFM inverter control adoption to better understand the dynamic behavior of the inverters and their scalability, which can impact the distribution system (DS). This paper provides a steady-state and transient analysis of the GFM power inverter controller via simulation to better understand voltage and frequency stabilization and ensure that the critical electric loads are not affected during a prolonged power outage. The controllers of the GFM inverter are simulated in HYPERSIM to examine voltage and frequency fluctuations. This analysis includes assessing the black start capability for photovoltaic microgrids, both grid-connected and islanded, during transient fault conditions. The high photovoltaic PV penetration levels open exciting opportunities and challenges for the DS. The GFM inverter control demonstrated appropriate response times for synchronization, connection, and disconnection to the grid. The DS has become more resilient and independent of fossil fuels by increasing the penetration of inverter-based distributed energy resources (DERs).


© 2024 by the authors. cc-by


distributed energy resources (DERs), grid-forming (GFM) inverter control, microgrids, self-synchronized universal droop control (SUDC)


Ward, L., Subburaj, A., Demir, A., Chamana, M., & Bayne, S.B.. 2024. Analysis of Grid-Forming Inverter Controls for Grid-Connected and Islanded Microgrid Integration. Sustainability (Switzerland), 16(5).