Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color
Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at −1 to 3°C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions.