A concise analytical model for the ideal reverse osmosis desalination processes
Permeate recovery is a key parameter that plays a central role in the performance assessment and optimization of reverse osmosis processes. It remains a great challenge for engineers in the field to determine the recovery conveniently and accurately from the basic parameters of a membrane system. A concise analytical model is presented here that, without the need for the empirical or fitting coefficients and tedious numerical calculation, links the recovery of a reverse osmosis process rigorously to three basic parameters: the feed water salt concentration, the characteristic of membrane process, and the driving pressure. A graphical solution method to the model is also introduced to find out the recovery effortlessly. The concise model and graphical method are demonstrated under various conditions as a powerful tool for the performance simulations and improvement of reverse osmosis processes.