The effect of arsenic trioxide on the grey flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)



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Larvae of Sarcophaga bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a necrophagous insect commonly utilized in the field of entomotoxicology, were reared on rabbit tissues of rabbits that were previously exposed to arsenic trioxide (As2O3) by different methods. We observed the effects of arsenic (As) and As metabolites in acute versus chronic exposure in rabbit tissues on growth rate (mean larval length), metamorphosis, mortality and reproductive output of S. bullata. The New Zealand white rabbit was utilized as a vehicle to create natural concentrations of As and As metabolites in liver tissue and to serve as food media for S. bullata. Acutely exposed rabbits (2 per group) received three different doses of As2O3 corresponding to the dosages of half the median lethal dose or 0.5 MLD (10.1 mg/kg body weight (BW)), median lethal dose or MLD (20.2 mg/kg BW) and twice the median lethal dose or 2 MLD (40.4 mg/kg BW) and one control rabbit received dosing vehicle only. Chronically exposed rabbits received a dosage of 1.5 mg/kg BW daily for 35 days and one rabbit received dosing vehicle only. Rabbits were subsequently euthanized either eight hours post-exposure (acute) or on day 36 (chronic). The liver of these rabbits were removed and half was used as food media for 100 S. bullata larvae per experimental rabbit liver. The remaining half of the rabbit liver was used as a food media for 100 offspring of the prior experimental fly generation. Ten of these larvae were sampled and measured every eight hours until the onset of larval migration, for both generations of flies. Larval and pupal mortality was recorded, as well as the number of offspring, per dose group. ANOVA revealed a significant increase in mean larval body length in MLD as compared to the chronic dose group. Metamorphic time of S. bullata was positively correlated to the concentration of total As in exposed rabbit liver and mortality was negatively correlated to the concentration of total As in exposed rabbit liver. The reproductive output of S. bullata was not correlated to the concentration of total As in rabbit liver tissue.



Diptera, Necrophagous, Entomotoxicology, Arsenic, Acute, Chronic