2 × 2 achievement goals profiles in Chilean competitive and recreational athletes: a first look


Purpose: was to examine the 2 × 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 × 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p < .05) and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range 1.13 - 2.91) endorsed the mastery-approach goal more so than the other three achievement goals. Male participants significantly ( p < .05) endorsed both approach goals and the mastery goal contrast more so than the female participants. These differences approached medium in meaningfulness (Hedges’ g range .40 - .46). Significant differences did not exist between competitive and recreational athletes on any of the achievement goals or goal contrasts. Confirming the lack of significant differences were the computed small to negligible in magnitude effect sizes. Conclusions: the present data were a first look into profiling sport participants on the 2 × 2 achievement goals in Chile. Given this sample of Chilean participants endorsed the performance goals far less than found in the sport psychology 2 × 2 achievement goal literature, more research is needed before these results are generalized to Chilean sport participants. Future research must also examine the relationships of antecedents and consequences to the 2 × 2 achievement goals to advance sport psychology in Chile.



Approach, Avoidance, Goals, Achievement, Contrasts, Athlete, Sex DIfferences


Marc R. Lochbaum, Javan Jean-Noel, Zişan Kazak Çetinkalp, Felipe Andrés Vallejo-Reyes, Jose Mena-Campbell. 2 x 2 achievement goals profilEs in chilean CompetiTIve and recreational athletes: a first look. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2016;1:41-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.15561/18189172.2016.0106