Maternal transfer and tissue distribution of HMX in quail eggs




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An efficient sample extraction and cleanup method was developed for determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in eggs. The procedure included solvent extraction of HMX from eggs followed by cleanup using florisil and styrene-divinyl benzene (SDB) cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase (RP) C18 column, with a mobile phase containing 60% methanol + 40% 1.0 mM acetic acid aqueous solution. Overall recoveries from eggs containing 10, 50, 250 and 1000 ng/g of HMX were 84.0%, 88.0%, 90.6% and 87.4%. A method detection limit (MDL) of 0.15 ng/g was achieved.

Then we evaluated the use of the gas exchange rate as an indicator of chemical stress in avian embryos/eggs. Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed to HMX via feed at concentrations of 0, 12.5, 50.0, and 125.0 mg/kg. Metabolic rates (oxygen consumptions) of incubated quail eggs were then measured via respirometry to examine potential effects of HMX exposure. Metabolic rate was examined on 5, 9, and 21 days of incubation. Next, concentrations of HMX in eggs were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of HMX in eggs from the four dose groups were significantly different. Mean (¡À SE) concentrations of HMX in quail eggs were 1025 ¡À 77, 3610 ¡À 143 and 7021 ¡À 300 ng/g in the low, medium and high dose groups respectively. A significant difference in oxygen consumption rates was observed among eggs at the three developmental stages (p



Oxgen consumption, Metabolic rate, Analysis, Maternal