Specialized Ribosomes in Health and Disease


Ribosomal heterogeneity exists within cells and between different cell types, at specific developmental stages, and occurs in response to environmental stimuli. Mounting evidence supports the existence of specialized ribosomes, or specific changes to the ribosome that regulate the translation of a specific group of transcripts. These alterations have been shown to affect the affinity of ribosomes for certain mRNAs or change the cotranslational folding of nascent polypeptides at the exit tunnel. The identification of specialized ribosomes requires evidence of the incorporation of different ribosomal proteins or of modifications to rRNA and/or protein that lead(s) to physiologically relevant changes in translation. In this review, we summarize ribosomal heterogeneity and specialization in mammals and discuss their relevance to several human diseases.


© 2023 by the authors. cc-by


human disease, protein synthesis, ribosomal protein, ribosomal RNA, ribosome heterogeneity, ribosome specialization, translation, translational control


Miller, S.C., MacDonald, C.C., Kellogg, M.K., Karamysheva, Z.N., & Karamyshev, A.L.. 2023. Specialized Ribosomes in Health and Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076334